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lxiv JOURNAL OF THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

On some Arrow-heads and other implements of Quartz and Flint from 
the Bin of Cullen {Elginshire). Extracted from letters received 
from Alexander Bryson, Esq., F.R.S.E., F.G.S., &c. By Geobge 
Roberts, F.A.S.L. 

The immediate neighbourhood of the Bin of Cullen, more especially 
near to Cullen House, has long been noted for its antiquarian asso- 
ciations. Thereabouts the great battle was fought between King 
Indulflus and the Danes, in which that monarch was among the slain. 
My brother, who is factor to the Earl of Seafield, has lately found the 
resting-place of the king beneath a cairn, some thirty yards long by 
fifteen broad, made up of rounded stones, not cemented by lime, but 
rudely piled together. We intend disturbing the remains of this 
ancient Scottish king shortly, without the slightest fear of disturbing 
his slumbers. 

About a mile from Cullen House, in a north-west direction, lies the 
great manufactory of flint arrow-heads and spear-heads, where pro- 
bably the "ancient arrow- maker" held out a way-side sign. How- 
ever this may be, nothing is to be found within an area of twenty yards 
square but flint- flakes ; I have met with hundreds, but with only one 
finished arrow-head — which is the small one exhibited. 

Finished arrow and spear-heads are abundant round this " work- 
shop," and are often turned up by the plough. They have been also 
found at a somewhat greater depth, as the following section shows : 
— Peat, 0-6 inches; sand, 0*6 inches ; shingle made up of local quart- 
zites, with many flint arrow-heads and a few flakes, 6 inches. 
" Flakes" are seldom or never found upon the surface, away from the 
" manufactory." 

Note by Mr. George E. Roberts. — I have submitted the flint imple- 
ments sent to me by Mr. Bryson to Mr. Christy, who recognises in 
the white quartz lance-head a North- American form, and comments 
upon it as one probably new to the British Islands. 

On some Flint Arrow -heads from Canada. By Frederick Royston 
Fairbank, Esq., M.D., F.A.S.L., Loc. Sec. A.S.L. for Man- 
chester. 
The accompanying arrow-heads, which I beg to present to the 
Society, were ploughed up in one of the valleys along the shores of 
Lake Erie, Canada. They were lying in the mould a few inches from 
the surface, and appeared to have been covered by sediment washed 
by the rain and by the overflowing of a small stream from the sides 
of the hills skirting the valley. Similar implements are found scat- 
tered over most of the valleys in that locality. It is believed that 
they were formed and used by the Eries, a tribe of Indians, who, 
numerous in 1 623 when visited by Father Joseph de la Roche d' Allyon, 
were exterminated in less than thirty years from that date, by constant 
and sanguinary strife with their kinsmen the Hurons, Petuns, and 
Neuters, and also with the powerful Iroquois, their common enemy. 
We need not, then, be surprised that the weapons which they used 
are found in great numbers. 



REICHENBACH ON THE VITALITY OF THE BLACK BACE. lxV 

The arrow-heads may be divided according to their shape into 
three classes. 

I. Almond shaped, 1^ inches long, § inch broad, and j- inch thick. 
The whole circumference sharp and serrated. 

II. Triangular, 2\ inches long, l\ inch broad at the base, and 
I inch thick. Base sharp and serrated like the sides. The angles at 
the base project slightly beyond the level of the centre, so as to make 
this edge slightly crescentic. 

III. In this class a process extends backwards from the centre of 
the base. The angles also at the base extend slightly backwards. 
Size various ; the largest presented is 3 inches long, If inch broad, 
and £ inch thick. 

The first class resembles in general characters the implements 
found in the drift known as " langues de chats." The second class, 
besides making a good arrow-head, would make a good, useful hatchet, 
fastened by its apex at right angles into the end of a staff. This in- 
strument is very carefully made, and must have required a considerable 
amount of dexterity in its formation, being unusually thin for its size. 
The process extending from the base of Class III. would enable the 
head to be more firmly fastened to the shaft. The projecting pos- 
terior angles would prevent the arrow being withdrawn after piercing 
the body. Most of the heads of this class are slightly curved, pro- 
bably from the conchoidal fracture of the flint. One of them possesses 
a remarkable double twist. Thinking that the head was intentionally 
made in this form to produce rotation during the passage of the arrow 
through the air ; I formed an arrow with a head similar to this, and 
found that the curve, though slight, was sufficient to cause rotation 
during its flight. This movement did not occur when the head was 
straightened. 

It is interesting to compare these implements, made by a tribe so 
recently extinct, with those obtained from the drift of France and 
England. Though in some respects they are superior to the latter, 
their general character is the same. Like the drift implements, they 
are rough hewn, and exhibit no signs of friction. The makers of 
them may therefore be considered to have been much on a par with 
the inhabitants of Europe during the early and middle portions of the 
" Stone age." 

On the Vitality of the Black Race, or the Coloured People in the United 
States, according to the Census. By Count Oscar Reichenbach. 

Statistics reveal to us mistakes and exaggerations on both sides of 

the Negro question. 

The increase of population within the United States has been — 





Whites. 


Coloured. 


From 1790—1800 . 


... 35 


. . . 32-23 per cent. 


1810 . 


... 34 


. . . 37-38 


1880 . 


... 343 . 


. . . 28-38 


1830 . 


. . . 346 . 


... 31-44 


1840 . 


... 34 


. . . 23-41 


I860 . 


. . . 37 


. . . 26-62 


1860 . 


. . . 404 . 


... 21-90 


VOL. II. — NO. IV. 







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